Avocetta, vol. 24, n. 1, June 2000
Visual bird migration at the northwestern coast of the Black Sea, Ukraine: 3-18
The Goulandris Natural History Museum, 13 Levidou St., 14562 Kifissia, Greece
In this paper are presented the results of a study of the diurnal bird migration in relation to weather conditions at Budaki salt lake, Dniestr estuary, Ukraine, during 1978-1990. Migration was studied for 240 days each year. From 100.000 to 270.000 migrant birds, belonging to 50 different species, were counted every year.
Il comportamento territoriale dell’Occhione Burhinus oedicnemus in ambienti fluviali dell’Italia centrale: 19-24
S.R.O.P.U. Stazione Romana Osservazione e Protezione Uccelli, c/o Bosco WWF Palo laziale, Via Palo laziale 2, 00055 Ladispoli Roma.
Le manifestazioni territoriali dell’Occhione Burhinus oedicnemus iniziano circa venti giorni dopo l’arrivo nelle aree di nidificazione, culminano nella fase di definizione dei territori riproduttivi fino alla deposizione delle uova e decrescono dalla fase di incubazione alla schiusa. In periodo riproduttivo è risultata evidente la correlazione tra la risposta positiva al play-back e il comportamento di “non sorvolo” dei territori dei vicini, da parte delle coppie nidificanti sul ghiareto. E’ stata rilevata una densità riproduttiva di una coppia/45 ha. La distanza media delle “aree nido” è di 904 m. Nell’area studiata è frequente la seconda covata annuale (77,7% dei casi; n=7). Nei censimenti su grande scala, si consiglia di utilizzare il metodo del play-back nel mese di aprile.
During the year 1995, on the rivers Paglia and Formone (central Italy), the territoriality of Stone curlew Burhinus oedicnemus has been studied by play-back. Territoriality starts some 20 days after the arrival at the reproductive sites. It has been noticed a relationship between territoriality and positive reponse to play-back. In the area examined it is normal to register a second clutch per year (by a percentage of 77.7% of the cases). On large scale census, the use of play-back method is advisable during the month of april.
A population study of Dipper Cinclus cinclus in the Italian Prealps:25-38
Giancarlo Fracasso, Stefano Tasinazzo & Francesco Faccin
Gruppo di Studi Naturalistici NISORIA, c/o Museo Naturalistico Archeologico, contrà S. Corona 4, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
The Dipper population breeding in a 12.5 km stretch of the River Posina (Vicenza Prealps, northeastern Italy) was studied during 1991-1996 and results were compared with those from other researches throughout Europe. The breeding density (mean = 1.46 ± 0.04 pairs/km) was relatively constant through years, but it was highly variable along the stream. A total of 127 nests were located, most of them (81.1%) built in artificial sites. The median laying date was 9 March for first breeding attempts and 23 April for second ones. Laying dates of first clutches were influenced by pair age and habitat features of the different stream stretches. The overall mean clutch size was 5.11 ± 0.54, comparable with values observed in northern populations of continental Europe. Clutch size did not vary during the season, apart from a sharp decrease in May. Of 54 successful first nestings, 25 (46.3%) were followed by a genuine second brood. The overall percentage of nests producing at least one young was 80.8%, second clutches being more successful than first and replacement ones. Young from clutches laid in different periods showed different recapture rates, nestlings hatched around mid-May showing the highest recapture rate. The annual adult survival rate, estimated from between-year recaptures, was 56.8%. Posina Dippers exhibited a strong territory fidelity both during the breeding season and in the following years.
Adult biometrics and nestling growth in a southern Prealpine Dipper Cinclus cinclus population: 39-44
Stefano Tasinazzo, Giancarlo Fracasso & Francesco Faccin
Gruppo di Studi Naturalistici NISORIA, c/o Museo Naturalistico Archeologico, contrà S. Corona 4, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
Biometrics of adult and nestling Dippers were studied along a 12.5 km stretch of the River Posina (Vicenza Prealps, northeastern Italy) during 1991-1996. Results were compared with other European data. Biometrics were collected from ca. 250 birds, mist-netted all year round. Independently of age, Dippers were classified as males or females if their wing length was above or below 91.0 mm, respectively. Body mass reached the maximum value during moult (August) and the minimum one at the end of breeding season (June). Growth rate of nestling Dippers (k = 0.350) did not differ from that observed in the Swiss Alps.
Survival, phenology and philopatry of the Melodious Warbler Hippolais polyglotta in North eastern Italy: 45-50
Roberto Pollo & Riccardo Bombieri
Riserva Naturale Palude Brusà – Via M. Tomba 27, 37053 Cerea (VR), ITALY
Abstract: Survival rates of adult Melodious Warblers were estimated by capture-mark-recapture data, analyzing capture – histories of 169 individuals with the program SURGE. The annual adult survival rate was estimated at 54,1%. Breeding density in the study area was 16 – 18 pairs/8 ha in the 1992-95 period, whereas decreased to 13 pairs in 1996. Philopatry, phenology of migration and of reproduction are also discussed.
Avian responses to nest-box installation in steppes of the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula (Extremadura): 51-54
Jesus M. Avilés* & Angel Sanchez**
*Grupo de Investigación en Conservación Área de Biología Animal Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas S/N, Badajoz 06071. España. email@example.com * *Dirección General de Medio Ambiente, Sta Eulalia, Mérida. España.
Occupation of nest-boxes by six middle-size species of birds in unwooded areas of Iberian peninsula was studied. The most frequent bird species nesting in boxes were Rollers (Coracias garrulus), Eurasian Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus ) and Lesser Kestrels (Falco naumanni ) suggesting that nests availability is the principal limitation for the colonization of open areas by these species. Unlike, Little Owls (Athene noctua ), Scops Owls (Otus scops ) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba ) were sporadic nester in the boxes although they nested in the study area. The occupation trends varied between the species. The Roller, the Eurasian Kestrel and the Lesser Kestrel increased their occupations during the study period, possibly as a consequence of the selective advantages of artificial nest-sites in relation to natural nest-sites in the area.
Popolazioni di uccelli acquatici nidificanti in Italia. 1997 e 1998: 55-57
a cura di Pierandrea Brichetti*, Giuseppe Cherubini* & Lorenzo Serra**
*C.I.S.O., Via V. Veneto 30, 25029 Verolavecchia, (BS) **I.N.F.S. via Cà Fornacetta 9, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO)
Breeding waterbird in Italy: 1997 and 1998. Brreding population numbers of 22 waterbird species with a localised distribution in Italy are given
Nuovi avvistamenti: 59-65
a cura di Emiliano Arcamone & Pierandrea Brichetti
CI.S.O., Via V. Veneto 30, 25029 Verolavecchia, (BS)
Book reviews: 67-68
Avocetta, vol. 24, n. 2, December 2000
The influence of nest site characteristics on frequency of use and breeding success in the Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea: 75-83
J.-L. Mougin & M.-C. Mougin
Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Laboratoire de Zoologie (Mammifères et Oiseaux), 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France.
In the Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis of Selvagem Grande (30°09’N, 15°52’W), information was collected for 15 consecutive years on frequency of use and breeding success at 529 nest sites, the physical characteristics of which were measured or coded as ranked variables. Nest type and presence of material outside the nest site were found to have significant effects on both parameters but there were no effects of location, density, vegetation cover or type of floor. Cory’s Shearwaters being faithful to their mate and nest site, the frequency of use of a nest site is likely to be more dependant on the length of pairings and on the hazards of repairings than on nest qualities. Breeding success is also likely to depend on the qualities of the breeders more than on those of the sites.
Selezione di habitat e riproduzione dell’Averla capirossa, Lanius senator, nel Lazio – Italia centrale: 85-93
G. Guerrieri & A. Castaldi
GAROL (Gruppo Attività Ricerche Ornitologiche del Litorale) Via Villabassa, 45 00124 Roma; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The reproductive biology of Woodchat Shrike, Lanius senator, has been studied for seven years (1992-1998) in a sample area of Central Italy. The settlement of the species in Latium, is influenced by May rainfall. The pairs number, greatly variable (+/- 50 %), varies between 1.40 and 2.04 pairs/km2 (max. 5 pairs/km2). Woodchat Shrike, sympatric with two other species of the same genus which nest in Italy (L. collurio, L. minor), seems to prefer xerophytic pastures with scattered shrubs (20 %). The interspecific competition is less intense than the intraspecific one. Nests are preferably located on shrubs which have a mean height of 3.39 m (S.D. = 1.31) and the mean height of nest site is 1.97 m (S.D. = 0.64). During laying of replacement clutches, when pairs are consolidated, singing activity is significantly reduced. If the first hutching is unsuccessful, Woodchat Shrike avoids to place the second nest where predators are facilitated. Average clutch size (4.61; S.D. = 1.01) is one of the lowest in the reproductive areas. The 4.41 of the eggs is sterile. The 41.5 % of the pairs fails the first reproduction and the 13.6 % is not able to reproduce at all. The average number of juvenes / pairs successful in hutching is 3.1 juv./pairs (S.D. = 1.16; juv./eggs = 0.575). In this region, adults seem to move away from the reproductive area sooner than juvenes.
The islands of Marettimo (Italy), important bird area for the autumn migration of raptors: 95-99
N. Agostini *, D. Logozzo ** & M. Panuccio °
* Via Carlo Alberto n° 4, 89046 Marina di Gioiosa Jonica (RC), Italy; ** Via Antonio Gramsci n° 26, 89046 Marina di Gioiosa Jonica (RC), Italy; ° Via Mario Fioretti n° 18, 00152 Roma, Italy. Corresponding author: Nicolantonio Agostini, address above.
A survey on the autumn migration of raptors over the island of Marettimo (western Sicily) was carried out from 27 August to 9 September 1997, and from 26 August to 14 September 1998. A total of 3177 and 5227 birds was counted, respectively. Each year, nearly all raptors observed were Black Kites Milvus migrans and Honey Buzzards Pernis apivorus. These species showed a strong tendency to migrate in large flocks. During 1998 it was possible to age some migrating birds; a notable overlap in the migration periods of adult and juvenile Black Kites occurred, while nearly all Honey Buzzards aged were adults. This study confirms the hypothesis that adult Honey Buzzards cross the central Mediterranean at its narrowest point, using the same route as in spring and showing true navigational abilities. Finally, on the island of Marettimo, occurs the greatest concentration of Black Kites and Egyptian Vultures Neophron percnopterus during post-reproductive movements on the central Mediterranean. These results suggest that this site should be included among the Important Bird Areas for the autumn migration of raptors.
The Autumnal Diet of Rock Partridge (Alectoris graeca) in the Central Apennines: 101-106
A. De Sanctis*, M. Pellegrini**, M. Biondi***, A. Manzi*° & B. Massa°
*C.A.R.F., C/o WWF-Abruzzo, C.P.317, 65100 Pescara, E-mail: email@example.com; **Ente Parco Nazionale della Majella, Via Occidentale 6, 66016 Guardiagrele (Ch); ***Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Università di L’Aquila; *°Giardino Botanico “Tenore”, Lama dei Peligni (Ch); °Stazione di Inanellamento, c/o Istituto di Entomologia Agraria, Viale delle Scienze 13, 90128 Palermo
A preliminary study on the autumnal diet of the Rock Partridge (Alectoris graeca) in the Central Apennines was carried out through the analysis of 21 gizzard contents. Considering both the number of species present and the variety of parts of plants consumed the diet was rather diversified. Green parts of plants were always found, especially Cistaceae (Helianthemum oelandicum) and Leguminosae. Seeds and fruits were present in 85.5% of the gizzards and the botanical families represented most frequently were Compositae, Fagaceae (Ostrya carpinifolia and Fagus sylvatica), Cistaceae and Leguminosae. Roots and bulbs appeared less frequently (14%). Coleoptera Chrysomelidae and Orthoptera were found respectively in 43% and 33.3% of the gizzards and constituted 94.5% of the total number of arthropods. Most of these taxa are linked to rocky slopes, xerophilous and short grass pastures, or abandoned fields. These results stressed the importance of maintaining and managing a mosaic of habitats for the conservation of this bird.
Song clinal variability in Passer italiae, a species of probable hybrid origins: 107-112
D. Fulgione, A. Esposito, C. E. Rusch & M. Milone
Dipartimento di Zoologia Università di Napoli Via Mezzocannone, 8 – 80134 Napoli, Italy. Correspondence author: Domenico Fulgione. firstname.lastname@example.org
Songs are commonly used to measure the clinal variation in hybrid zones. The Italian sparrow populations are currently considered as stabilised hybrids. Their range is delimited by two contact zones: Alpine area and Sicily island with two parental species, Passer domesticus (North European species) and Passer hispaniolensis (North African and south Mediterranean islands specie) respectively. The Italian sparrows (Passer italiae) show intermediate traits according to genotypic and phenotypic clinal variation through the Italian peninsula. In an analysis of song display in Italian sparrow we have used the male territorial marker song as distinctive display between populations. We have recorded and compared the song of male Italian sparrows with those of the two parental species using spectrogram analysis. By multivariate analysis we have found a clinal variation from P. hispaniolensis to peninsular Italian sparrow. This pattern is broken in the Alps where Italian sparrow populations and P. domesticus show similar song structure among each other.
Finding out who is nesting where: a method for locating nest sites of hole-nesting species prior to egg laying: 113-119
Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Terrestrial Ecology P.O. Box 40, NL 6666 ZG Heteren, The Netherlands; email: email@example.com
A method to find out which species is more likely to start egg laying in a certain nestbox is described. Nestboxes were visited daily and the behaviour of the birds (Great, Blue and Coal Tits) that appeared around the nestbox was observed. The birds’ response consisted mainly of giving alarm calls and showing inquisitive behaviour (i.e., approaching the observer and looking at close distance). Proximity of the individual (or the pair) to the nest and inquisitive behaviour of the female bird were found to be associated with nest ownership. Alarm calling and inquisitive behaviour of males were less selective and therefore not diagnostic. Nocturnal check of nestboxes provided useful information about the nest owners, but they were more reliable at late nest-building phases, when the female was closer to egg laying. It is suggested that this observation method may be used in field studies of species breeding in nestboxes or even natural cavities. This work emphasises the importance of observing small details of behaviour as symptoms of the condition ‘inside’ the individual (motivation).
Differences in reproductive performance between two colonies of egrets in two areas with different human influence: 121-124
D. Parejo, J. M. Sanchez, A. Munoz & J. M. Avilés
Grupo de Investigación en Conservación, Área de Biología Animal, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071. Badajoz, España, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Spatial distribution of a Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis population from Lagiewnicki Forest (Lodz – Central Poland): 125-128
J. J. Nowakowski
Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Warnia & Masuria University, 10-561 Olsztyn, Zolnierska 14, Poland, e-mail: email@example.com
Spatial distribution of a population the Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis in Lagiewnicki Forest, a wooded area close to Lodz city interested by increasing urbanization was studied. Nearest neighbour distances, population density, “mean crowding” and distribution of territories in relation to the edge of forest were analysed. Population density at the town edge was four titnes lower than that at cultivated fields edge. Frequency distribution of square roots of the nearest neighbour distances was positively and significantly skewed (a3 = 0.81), suggesting a clumped distribution. The centres of singing males territories of were on average 260 m apart. The distances between the territories and the forest edge bordering cultivated fields were positively skewed (a3 = 0.85), whilst the distances between territories and the town edge were significantly and negatively skewed (a3 = 0.42).
Note sul cleptoparassitismo dello Storno Sturnus vulgaris in periodo riproduttivo: 129-131
SROPU, Oasi WWF Bosco di Palo, Via di Palo laziale 2, 00055 Ladispoli (Roma).
During a study on the diet of Starling Sturnus vulgaris, several cases of kleptoparasitism, both intraspecific and interspecific, were observed. Information was collected on the techniques and frequency of success, as well as on the taxa of the stolen prey. In the case of intraspecific kleptoparasitism a technique of “threat” was applied which had low energy cost but produced a rather low percentage of success (10,9%). The fact that the prey was given up without any further aggression could be due to the possible existence of a hierarchy within the colony, containing dominant members who have priority over the young and lower ranks. In interspecific kleptoparasitism, which occurred only against Blackbird Turdus merula, the percentage of success was 84%. This was much higher than that recorded by Källander (1988) on Lapwing Vanellus vanellus which unlike Blackbird, used a variety of strategies to escape the attack of the Starling, sometimes crowned with success. In interspecific kleptoparasitism, techniques of “attack” and “chase” were used. The high energy cost incurred by the Starling was compensated by the high percentage of success gained using these two techniques (91,3%) and by the protein value of the stolen prey: 76,2% being earthworms. During the rearing of the young, catching of earthworms was carried out exclusively by kleptoparasitising Blackbirds.
Uccelli acquatici nidificanti: 1999: 133-138
a cura di L. Serra* & P. Brichetti**
* I.N.F.S., Via Ca’ Fornacetta 9, 40064 Ozzano Emilia BO (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org); ** C.I.S.O., Via V. Veneto 30, 25029 Verolavecchia BS (e-mail: email@example.com)
Breeding waterbird in Italy: 1999. Brreding population numbers of 23 waterbird species with a localised distribution in Italy are given.
Book reviews: 139-143